Thursday, April 12, 2018

The Glorious Mysteries of the Rosary


Benedetto di Silvestro, The Resurrectin
From the Vita Christi
Italian (Lombardy), c. 1500-1550
New York, Pierpont Morgan Library
MS M508, fol. 39r


The Glorious Mysteries of the Rosary ask us to reflect on the joyful event of the Resurrection and its aftermath.*  Thus we begin with the first Glorious Mystery, the Resurrection of Our Lord.  Then we move on to the last sight of the glorified Risen Jesus on this earth, the Ascension, as He is taken up into heaven.  The next sight of His glorified body will be at the second coming.


The last three of the Glorious Mysteries are reflections on the early history of the Church, the first being the Descent of the Holy Spirit at Pentecost.  The fourth Mystery is the Assumption of the Virgin Mary, when Mary’s mortal remains were taken up into heaven, where she lives as a fully alive human being. 


The final decade of the five Glorious Mysteries is speculative.  It is the Coronation of Mary as Queen of Heaven.  We believe that, on the arrival of her body in heaven, the complete person that is Mary was crowned by her Son as Queen of Heaven.  As the human mother of the Second Person of the Holy Trinity, she receives special honor from all the angels and the other saints.  She herself adores the Holy Trinity, along with those angels and saints, of which she is the highest in rank.









The five decades of the Glorious Mysteries are:

1.  The Resurrection


2.  The Ascension


3.  The Descent of the Holy Spirit


4.  The Assumption of the Blessed Virgin
  • ·         Vigil of the Feast of the Assumption – The Dormition of the Virgin
  • ·         Assumpta est Maria in caelum – Mary Is Assumed Into Heaven


5.  The Coronation of the Blessed Virgin
·         Ave Regina Caelorum –The Queenship of Mary

As with the recitation of the Rosary in general, the intent of praying the Glorious Mysteries is not the simple recitation of well-known prayers but the contemplation of the outcome of the sacrifice of Calvary.  While reciting the prayers we may mentally witness the Easter events in the lives of the Risen Jesus, the early Church and the Blessed Virgin Mary and gain a foretaste of what will come for us at the end of time.

© M. Duffy, 2018

*  For a general explanation of the Rosary see:  http://imaginemdei.blogspot.com/2014/12/the-rosary.html

Sunday, April 1, 2018

Links for the Easter Season


Anthony van Dyck, The Resurrection
Flemish, c. 1631-1632
Hartford (CT), Wadsworth Athenaeum






The days of Lent and the days of sadness that are the Triduum are past once again and Easter 2018 has arrived!

Alleluia!  Alleluia!
Alleluia!


I wish you a happy and profoundly inspiring Easter Season.

















Below are links to some of the commentary that I have written over the  years regarding the iconography of the Easter Season, which extends from this happy day till Pentecost.
Please feel free to explore.

The Resurrection and the Days Immediately Following Through the Feast of the Holy Trinity


The Resurrection, the Appearances, the Incredulity of Thomas, Emmaus

Title
Date Published
Link

The Women at the Tomb

April 27, 2011

Noli Me Tangere

April 29, 2011

Jesus, the Gardener
April 18, 2017

The Incredulity of St. Thomas (Doubting Thomas)
May 1, 2011

Emmaus -- The Journey

May 7, 2011

Emmaus -- The Recognition

May 7, 2011

Climbing from the Tomb

May 13, 2011

Hovering over the Tomb

May 13, 2011

Bursting from the Tomb

May 14, 2011

An Awkward
Resurrection Image


April 23, 2014
Good Shepherd Sunday
May 15, 2011

The Lake of Galilee -- The Disciples Go Fishing

May 17, 2011

Commission to Peter -- The Good Shepherd Transfers Responsibility

May 21, 2011

The Commission to the Apostles

May 27, 2011

Christ Appears to His Mother


Christ Presents the Redeemed to His Mother

June 1, 2011


May 11, 2017

The Ascension




Striding into the Sky
June 3, 2011

Lifted in a Mondorla or on a Cloud

May 5, 2017

The Disappearing Feet

May 5, 2017

The Direct Approach

May 5, 2017

Pentecost


Veni, Sanctae Spiritus


Tongues of Fire



May 27, 2012


May 15, 2016



http://imaginemdei.blogspot.com/2011/06/veni-sanctae-spiritus.htm

http://imaginemdei.blogspot.com/2016/05/tongues-of-fire.html

At This Sound, They Gathered In a Crowd


The Holy Trinity


Worthy Is The Lamb


Father, Son, Spirit


Iconography of the 
Holy Trinity – 
Imagining The Unimaginable

May 17, 2016





April 10, 2016


May 18, 2008


June 2, 2012

© M. Duffy, 2017



Thursday, March 29, 2018

Links for Good Friday

Fra Angelico and assistants, Mocking of Christ
Italian, 1440-1443
Florence, Convent of San Marco









Recently I presented a series of links to pictures, mostly by Giotto, of the events of Holy Week.  Today I am presenting a larger series of links to many more works of art, arranged around themes suggested by meditations and such devotions as the Rosary and the Stations of the Cross.

There is a great deal of material here that you can use to explore the themes presented.  May you have a fruitful experience while using them.



2012 Series:  Meditations on the Passion
Meditation on the Passion
April 1, 2012
Meditation on the Passion – The Mocking of Christ by Fra Angelico
April 4, 2012
Meditation on the Passion – The Ecce Homo
April 5, 2012
Meditation on the Passion – The Man of Sorrows
April 6, 2012
Meditation on the Passion – In the Tomb

 2018 Additions:
Meditation on the Passion -- The Instruments of the Passion  
Meditation on the Passion -- The Man of Sorrows with Instruments of the Passion

April 7, 2012


March 28, 2018

March 29, 2018










© M. Duffy, 2017

The Man of Sorrows with Instruments of the Passion

Fra Angelico and assistants, Meditation on the Passion, The Man of Sorrows with
Instruments of the Passion with the Blessed Virgin Mary and Saint Thomas Aquinas
Italian,  c.1441-1442
Florence, Convent of San Marco
In the same manner in which Fra Angelico showed Mary and St. Dominic meditating on
the Mocking of Jesus this picture (worked on mostly by assistants) shows Mary and 
Saint Thomas Aquinas.  Thomas appears to be in the act of preparing to write down his 
thoughts.  The figure of Jesus is surrounded by (from left to right) the sponge on the reed,
the lance, slapping right hand, Judas in the act of betrayal, Peter being challenged by 
the serving maid, the Cross and inscription, the attack on His blindfolded head, 
truncheon, a spitting head and the 30 pieces of silver changing hands.  



 “The Lord GOD has given me
a well-trained tongue,
that I might know how to speak to the weary
a word that will rouse them.
Morning after morning
he opens my ear that I may hear;
and I have not rebelled,
have not turned back.
I gave my back to those who beat me,
my cheeks to those who plucked my beard;
my face I did not shield
from buffets and spitting.

The Lord GOD is my help,
therefore, I am not disgraced;
I have set my face like flint,
knowing that I shall not be put to shame.”
Isaiah 50:4-7 (First Reading of the Mass for Palm Sunday of the Lord’s Passion)





In 2012 I first presented an essay on the image of the Man of Sorrows (view here), that is (originally) on the image of Jesus Post-Crucifixion, with the imprint of the nails and the lance, wearing the Crown of Thorns, positioned at the center of the image, no longer alive but not part of a Pietà image nor an Entombment image.  Such pictures are devotional images, introduced into western Europe from the Byzantine Empire during the 13th century, through Venice.  


In the Byzantine world this image remained fairly static.  However, in western Europe it took on many variations or, as I call them, “tropes”1.  Among the early tropes is the Man of Sorrows Surrounded by the Instruments of the Passion.  I have examined the idea and image of the Instruments of the Passion in a separate essay (here). 

This trope on the Man of Sorrows motif is remarkably consistent in nearly all the images of it that I have found.  In the main expression of the trope, Jesus as the Man of Sorrows is shown half-length, positioned as if emerging from the sepulcher and surrounded by the instruments of the Passion, some placed on the ground in front of the sepulcher (in the majority of cases) or draped over it and some seen as if suspended in the air around Him.  In some images Jesus may hold one or two of the items. 


Associate of the Bedford Master, Man of Sorrows
with the Instruments of the Passion
From a Book of Hours
Flemish, c. 1400-1425
London, British Library
MS Royal 2 A VIII, fol. 55v
Attributed to the Bedford Master, The Man of Sorrows
with Instruments of the Passion
From a Book containing works by Christine de Pizan
French (Paris), c. 1410-1414
London, British Library
MS Harley 4431, fol. 257





























A Master of the Gold Scrolls Group, The Man of
Sorrows with the Instruments of the Passion
From a Book of Hours
Flemish (Bruges), c. 1415-1425
New York, Pierpont Morgan Library
MS M 76, fol.70v
Christ as the Man of Sorrows
Single Leaf from a Manuscript
Czech, c. 1420
Private Collection





























The Man of Sorrows as the Ecce Homo,
Holding Instruments of the Passion
From a Missal
German, c.1430-1440
London, British Library
Harley 2855, fol. 3v
Follower of Masters of the Gold Scrolls
The Man of Sorrows with the Instruments of the Passion
From a Book of Hours
Flemish, c. 1440
The Hague, Meermano Museum
MS MMW 10 F 11, fol. 65v





























The Man of Sorrows with Instruments of the Passion
From a Book of Hours
Dutch, c. 1450-1475
London, British Library
MS Harley 2966, fol. 84v
The Man of Sorrows with Instruments of the Passion
From a Book of Hours
Flemish, c. 1450-75
London, British Library
MS Harley 2985, fol. 140v





























Master of Riglos, Man of Sorrows with Instruments
of the Passion
Spanish, c. 1435-1460
Oxford, University of Oxford, Campion Hall
Willem Vrelant, Man of Sorrows with the
Instruments of the Passion
From the Arenberg Hours
Flemish (Bruges), c. 1460-1465
Los Angeles, J. Paul Getty Museum
MS Ludwig IX 8, fol. 234





























Man of Sorrows with Instruments of the Passion
English, c. 1465-1470
Chicago, Art Institute
Man of Sorrows with Instruments of the Passion
Italian (Umbrian), c. 1476-1500
Cologne, Wallraf-Richartz-Museum & Fondation Corboud



























Man of Sorrows with Instruments of the Passion
From a Book of Hours
French (Paris), c. 1490-1500
The Hague, Koninklijk Bibliotheek
MS KB 76 F 14, fol. 213v
Giovanni di Pietro, Called Lo Spagna, Man of Sorrows with Instruments of the Passion
Italian, c. 1490-1500
St. Petersburg, State Hermitage Museum

The vast majority of images present Jesus in this way, but a few show Him seated or standing outside of the sepulcher.


The Man of Sorrows with Instruments of the Passion Showing the Five Wounds
From a Cathusian Miscellany
English, c. 1425-1475
London, British Library
MS Additional 37049, fol. 23
Seated Man of Sorrows with Instruments
of the Passion
Nothern French, c. 1470
Boston, Museum of Fine Arts
Master of Edward IV, Man of Sorrows with Instruments of the Passion
From a Book of Hours
Dutch (Utrecht), c. 1495-1505
New York, Pierpont Morgan Library
MS G 5, fol. 59v

Man of Sorrows with Instruments of the Passion
From a Book of Hours,
Flemish, c. 1500
London, British L
MS King's 9, fol. 231v
Israhel van Meckenem, Man of Sorrows with
Inatruments of the Passion
From an Album of 12 Prints
Dutch, Late 15th Century
New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art
























A further group includes the images of angels, saints or donors who may mourn, or meditate, or pray or appeal directly to the viewer to participate. 

Roberto Oderisi, The Man of Sorrows with
the Virgin Mary and Saint John the Evangelist
Surrounded by the Instruments of the Passion
Italian, c. 1354
Cambridge (MA), Harvard Art Museums
Giovanni di Benedetto and Workshop, The Man of Sorrows
with the Virgin Mary and Saint John the Evangelist
Surrounded by the Instruments of the Passion
From a Missal
Italian, (Milan), c. 1385-1390
Paris, Bibliotheque nationale de France
MS Latin 757, fol. 237





























Master of Saint Veronica, The Man of with the Virgin and St. Catherine
Surrounded with the Instruments of the Passion
German, c. 1400-1420
Antwerp, Koninklijk Museum voor Schone Kunsten
Master of the Brussels Initials and Workshop
The Man of Sorrows with the Virgin Mary and the
Instruments of the Passion
From the Hours of Charles the Noble, King of Navarre
French, c. 1405
Cleveland Museum of Art
MS 1964.40, fol. 128
Bedford Master or His Workshop, Deposition
Surrounded by Angels with the Instruments of the Passion
From the Hours of Charlotte of Savoy
French (Paris), c. 1415-1430
New York, Pierpont Morgan Library
MS M 1004, fol. 63v






























Master of the Harvard Hannibal, The Man of Sorrows
with Instruments of the Passion, Supported by an
Angel and  Venerated by a Bishop
Single Leaf from a Book of Hours
French (Paris), c. 1420
Private Collection

Masters of the Gold Scrolls, The Man of Sorrows
Supported by an Angel, with Instruments of the Passion
From a Prayer Book
Flemish, c. 1450
The Hague, Koninklijk Bibliotheek
MS KB 130 E 17, fol. 31v





























Man of Sorrows with Angels and Instruments of
the Passion
German, c. 1475-1485
London, British Museum
Master of the Oberaltaicher, Man of Sorrows with
the Instruments of the Passion Adored by Donor
German, c. 1515-1520
Munich, Bayerische Staatsgemaeldesammlungen,
Alte Pinakothek




























The Altarpiece of Boulbon, The Man of Sorrows with the Instruments of the Passion as the Second Person of the Trinity
to Whom the Donor is Presented by Saint Agricola of Avignon
French, c. 1530
Paris, Musee du Louvre

In some of these images Jesus gestures toward the wound in His side, to emphasize the piercing of His heart.  This image will eventually lead to the devotion to the Sacred Heart (see here).  

Meister Francke, The Man of Sorrows Supported
by an Angel with Angels Bearing the Instruments of
the Passion
German, c. 1420
Leipzig, Museum der Bildenden Kuenste

Jean le Tavernier and Follower, The Man of Sorrows with Instruments of the Passion
From Meditation de la PassionFlemish, c. 1450-1460
The Hague, Koninklijk Bibliotheek
MS KB 76 F 2, fol. 221r
Man of Sorrows with Instruments of the Passion
Flemish, c. 1450-1500
Barnard Castle, County Durham (UK),  Bowes Museum

Master of the Dutuit Mount of Olives
The Man of Sorrows with Instruments of the Passion
German, c. 1455-1470
London, British Museum
Willem Vrelant, The Man of Sorrows with
Instruments of the Passion
From the Hours of Catherine of Aragon
Flemish, c. 1460
The Hague, Koninklijk Bibliotheek
MS KB 76 F 7, fol. 173v





























Man of Sorrows Supported by Angels and
Surrounded by Instruments of the Passion
From a Book of Hours
Flemish, c. 1465-1475
New York, Pierpont Morgan Library
MS M93, fol.136v
Man of Sorrows with Instruments of the Passion
From a Breviary
French (Toulouse), c. 1485-1495
New York, Pierpont Morgan Library
MS M463, fol.54r
This image is a little unusual because of the very prominent
position given to the dice, which are usually not so pointedly
 featured.







Goswijn van der Weyden, Triptych of Abbot Antonius Tsgooten
Flemish, 1507
Antwerp, Koninklijk Museum voor Schone Kunsten
Workshop of Albrecht Bouts, Man of Sorrows with Insturments of the Passion
Dutch, c. 1530
Budapest, Szepmusveszeti Muzeum
All images of the Man of Sorrows are meant to be devotional images, for the contemplation of the sacrifice of Calvary and the price of salvation.  This trope represents a further intensification of the meditation on the sacrifice of the Cross as we are reminded of the torture that occurred before the nailing to the Cross. 

Excerpts from the Lectionary for Mass for Use in the Dioceses of the United States of America, second typical edition © 2001, 1998, 1997, 1986, 1970 Confraternity of Christian Doctrine, Inc., Washington, DC. Used with permission. All rights reserved. No portion of this text may be reproduced by any means without permission in writing from the copyright owner.

© M. Duffy, 2018

  1. Here “trope” is used in the original sense of “a phrase or verse added as an embellishment or interpolation to the sung parts of the Mass in the Middle Ages”.  Merriam-Webster.com, Merriam-Webster, www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/trope. Accessed 23 Mar. 2018.